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pernicious attractio●ns of gifts, kind words, and po■litic blandishments. To the vital principl■e of propagandism both the commercial■ and the military character were subordinate■d; or, to speak more justly, ●trade, policy, and military power l●eaned on the missions as their main supp■ort, the grand instrument of th■eir extension. The missions were to ■explore the interior; the missions were to w■in over the savage hordes at on■ce to Heaven and to France. Peaceful, benign, ●beneficent, were the weapons of this conquest.● France aimed to subdue, not by the sword,■ but by the cross; not to ove●rwhelm and crush the nations she invaded, but t■o convert, civilize, and embrace them among he●r children. And who were the instrum●ents and the promoters of this prose■lytism, at once so devout and■ so politic? Who can answer? Who can trace o●ut the crossing and mingling currents of w■isdom and folly, ignorance and knowledge, ■truth and falsehood, weakness and force, the■ noble and the base, can analyz●e a systematized contradiction, and fol■low through it

s secret wheels, springs, and■ levers a phenomenon of moral mechanism? W■ho can define the Jesuits? The■ story of their missions is marvellous ●as a tale of chivalry, or legends of the ●lives of saints. For many years, it was the his■tory of New France and of the wild communities● of her desert empire. Two years passed. T●he mission of the Hurons was ●established, and here the indo■mitable Breheuf, with a band worthy ●of him, toiled amid miseries and● perils as fearful as ever shook the constan●cy of man; while Champlain at Quebec,■ in a life uneventful, yet harassing and l●aborious, was busied in the round of care●s which his post involved. Christmas day, 16■35, was a dark day in the annals■ of New France. In a chamber o●f the fort, breathless and cold, lay the hardy ●frame which war, the wilderness, ●and the sea had buffeted so long in● vain. After two months and a ha●lf of illness, Champlain, stricken with paralys●is, at the age of sixty-eight, was dead. His la■st cares were for his colony and the s■uc

cor of its suffering famil●ies. Jesuits, officers, soldiers, ●traders, and the few settlers of Quebec fo■llowed his remains to the church; L■e Jeune pronounced his eulogy, and the fe●eble community built a tomb to his honor. ●The colony could ill spare him. For twenty-seven■ years he had labored hard and ceaseless●ly for its welfare, sacrifici●ng fortune, repose, and domestic pe●ace to a cause embraced with ent●husiasm and pursued with intrepid persiste●ncy. His character belonged partly to the p●ast, partly to the present. The preux c●hevalier, the crusader, the romance-l●oving explorer, the curious, knowle■dge-seeking traveler, the practical n■avigator, all claimed their ■share in him. His views, though ■far beyond those of the mean spirit■s around him, belonged to his age ■and his creed. He was less states●man than soldier

. He leaned to the most direc■t and boldest policy, and one ●of his last acts was to petition ●Richelieu for men and munitions for re●pressing that standing menace to the■ colony, the Iroquois. His dauntless courage was■ matched by an unwearied patience, prov■ed by life-long vexations, and n●ot wholly subdued even by the s■aintly follies of his wife. He is charged with ■credulity, from which few of his a●ge were free, and which in all ages has b●een the foible of earnest and generous natures,● too ardent to criticise, an●d too honorable to doubt the honor of o●thers. Perhaps the heretic might have lik■ed him more if the Jesuit had liked him less. T■he adventurous explorer of Lake Huron, the■ bold invader of the Iroquois, ■befits but indifferently the mona■stic sobrieties of the fort of Quebec, and■ his sombre

environment of priests. Yet Champla■in was no formalist, nor was his an ■empty zeal. A soldier from his youth, in an age● of unbridled license, his life ■had answered to his maxims; an■d when a generation had passed● after his visit to the Hurons, their■ elders remembered with astonishment● the continence of the great French wa■r-chief. His books mark the man,—●all for his theme and his purpose, nothing ■for himself. Crude in style, full of the sup■erficial errors of carelessness a

n■d haste, rarely diffuse, often brief● to a fault, they bear on every page ■the palpable impress of truth. With the ■life of the faithful soldier ●closes the opening period of New France.■ Heroes of another stamp succeed; ■and it remains to tell the story of their devot●ed lives, their faults, follies, and virtues●. Volume 2 PREFACE. Few passages of his●tory are more striking than those which record● the efforts of the earlier French Jesuit●s to convert the Indians. Full as they are of dr●amatic and philosophic interest, bearing str●ong

ly on the political desti■nies of America, and closely involved with the● history of


馾erful that they have been left so long in■ obscurity. While the infant ■colonies o



the shores of th●e Atlantic, events deeply ominous to the■ir future were in progress, unk■nown to them, in the very heart of the contin■ent. It will be seen, in the sequel of this● volume, that civil and religious liberty f■ound strange allies in this W■estern World. The sources of informati●on concerning the early Jesuits of ●New France are very copious. During a period■ of forty years, the Superior of the M■ission vi sent, every summer, long and de■tailed reports, embodying or accompani■ed by the reports of his subordinates■, to the Provincial of the Or■der at Paris, where they were annually published■, in duodecimo volumes, forming the ●remarkable series known as the Je●suit Relations. Though the productions■ of men of scholastic training, they are simpl■e and often crude in style, as might be■ expected of narratives hastily● written in Indian lodges or rude missi●on-houses in the forest, amid annoyan■ces and interruptions of all k■inds. In respect to the value of their cont●ents, they are exceedingly unequal. Modest ■records of marvellous adventures and sacrific■es, and vivid pictures of forest-life, alt●ernate with prolix and monotonous details of t■he conversion of individual savages, and the ?/p>


鰌raiseworthy deportment of some ■exemplary neophyte. With reg●ard to the condition and characte■r of the primitive inhabitants of North America,■ it is impossible to exagger■ate their value as an authority. I should ad■d, that the closest examination has left me no● doubt that these missionaries w■rote in perfect good faith, and that the Re●lations hold a high place as authen■tic and trustworthy historical ■documents. They are very scarce, and no compl●ete collection of them exists in America●. The entire series was, however, republish■ed, vii in 1858, by the Canadian● government, in three large o●ctavo volumes. [1] [1] Both editions—the ol●d and the new—are cited in the foll●owing pages. Where the referenc■e is to the old edition, it is indicated by● the name of the publisher (Cramoisy), appende●d to the citation, in brackets. ● In extracts given in the notes, the antiqu●ated orthography and accentu●ation are preserved. These form bu●t a part of the surviving writings of● the French-American Jesuits. Many additi■onal reports, memoirs, journals, and let



ters, ●official and private, have come down to us; so■me of which have recently been printed, whi●le others remain in manuscript. ■Nearly every prominent actor ●in the scenes to be described has left■ his own record of events in which he bore part●, in the shape of reports to his■ Superiors or letters to his friends. I hav●e studied and compared these aut●horities, as well as a great mass of● collateral evidence, with more than usual care,● striving to secure the greatest possible accur■acy of statement, and to reproduc


e an image of● the past with photographic ●clearness and truth. The introductory chapter o■f the volume is independent of the rest; but a k■nowledge of the facts set fo■rth in it is essential to the full■ understanding of the narrative■ which follows. In the collec●tion of material, I have received viii valuable● aid from Mr. J. G. Shea, Rev. Fe●lix Martin, S.J., the Abbés Laverdièr■e and H. R. Casgrain, Dr. J. C. Ta■ché, and the late Jacques Vi●ger, Esq. I propose to devote the next ■volume of this series to the disc■overy and occupation by the French of the■ Valley of the Mississippi. Boston, 1st May, ■1867 INTRODUCTION. NATIVE TRIBES. Divis■ions ? The Algonqui

ns ? The Hurons ? Th●eir Houses ? Fortifications ? Habits ? Arts ? Wo■men ? Trade ? Festivities ? Medicine ? The■ Tobacco Nation ? The Neutrals ? The Er●ies ? The Andastes ? The Iroquois ? Indian ■Social and Political Organiz■ation ? Iroquois Institutions, Customs, ■and Character ? Indian Religion and Superstitio■ns ? The Indian Mind America, w●hen it became known to Europea●ns, was, as it had long been, a scene● of wide-spread revolution. North and■ South, tribe was giving place to t

ribe, lan●guage to language; for the Indian, hopelessly un●changing in respect to individual and ●social development, was, as regarded tribal rela■tions and local haunts, mutable ■as the wind. In Canada and the norther●n section of the United States,● the elements of change were especially act■ive. The Indian population which, in 1535, C●artier found at Montreal and Quebec, had■ disappea

red at the opening of the■ next century, and another race had s●ucceeded, in language and customs widely d■ifferent; while, in the region now forming● the State of New York, a power was■ rising to a ferocious vitality, wh●ich, but for the presence of Euro●peans, would probably have sub●jected, absorbed, or extermi■nated every other Indian xx comm■unity east of the Mississippi and n■orth of the Ohio. The vast tra■ct of wilderness from the Mississi■ppi to the Atlantic, and from ■the Carolinas to Hudson's Bay, was divided betw■een two great families of tribes,■ distinguished by a radical di■fference of language. A part of Virginia an■d of Pennsylvani


a, New Jersey, Southeastern N■ew York, New England, New Brunswick, Nova Sc■otia, and Lower Canada were occupied, ■so far as occupied at all, by tribes● speaking various Algonquin languages and di●alects. They extended, moreover, along the sho■res of the Upper Lakes, and into the■

dreary Northern wastes beyon■d. They held Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, ■and Indiana, and detached bands ranged t●he lonely hunting-ground of Kentuck■y. [1] [1] The word Algonquin is● here used in its broadest signific●ation. It was origina

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